During the sedated endoscopy, which ensures that you sleep during the entire test, I inspect your esophagus, stomach and duodenum. I will examine the presence of reflux related changes in the esophagus including inflammation (esophagitis) and hernia formation (enlarged hole in the diaphragm; trumpet type C) These findings indicate the failure of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), i.e. the cause of reflux and heartburn.
During the test, I also take biopsies ( 2-3 mm tissue samples) from your duodenum, stomach and the esophagus. The histopathological examination of these biopsies is conducted under the microscope and categorises the findings according to the novel Chandrasoma classification.